Canada ‘strongly condemns’ Niger military coup as others threaten sanctions, cut aid

Canada is speaking out against a coup d’etat in Niger but hasn’t joined other nations in threatening to cut aid to the West African country.

Last Wednesday, a faction of Niger’s military claimed to have overthrown the country’s democratically elected president Mohamed Bazoum after detaining him in his palace.

In a tweet Friday evening, Global Affairs Canada wrote that Ottawa “strongly condemns the attempted coup” in Niger and called for Bazoum’s release.

“We reaffirm our support for Niger’s democracy and reiterate our call for President Bazoum’s release,” the department wrote, expressing support for the Economic Community of West African States, a group of 15 countries known as ECOWAS.

That bloc has threatened to sanction leaders of the military junta and send in troops if Bazoum isn’t restored to power within a week.

Britain and the European Union have pulled aid from the country, while Washington has considered following suit. The Trudeau government has given no indication it is thinking of cutting back on development and humanitarian dollars for Niger, which has amounted to roughly $60 million per year.

The tumult in Niger is the latest in a series of attempted coups across the Sahel region, where the so-called Islamic State group has been recruiting militants and committing massacres. The political instability comes as the Russian mercenary group Wagner meddles in countries across the region.

Prime Minister Justin Trudeau last met with Bazoum in November at a summit in Tunisia, where he praised his “leadership in progressive values,” such as women’s inclusion and democracy, in a region of rising authoritarianism.

Prime Minister Justin Trudeau takes part in a bilateral meeting with Niger’s President Mohamed Bazoum during the Francophonie Summit in Djerba, Tunisia on Sunday, Nov. 20, 2022. Bazoum is under detention following a military coup in Niger. (Sean Kilpatrick/The Canadian Press)

At the time, Bazoum noted Canada had been less present in his country since the 1970s when Ottawa was at the forefront of development programs.

“We have a little distancing and we’re going to work on that (to) make sure that our ties make us even closer,” Bazoum said in French on Nov. 20, 2022. “We will be committed to making our relationship stronger.”

Four nations are run by military governments in West and Central Africa, where there have been nine successful or attempted coups since 2020.

ECOWAS said Sunday that all its member countries will suspend commercial and financial transactions with Niger and freeze assets in regional central banks.

Niger heavily dependent on aid

The economic sanctions could have a deep effect on Nigeriens, who live in the third-poorest country in the world, according to the latest United Nations data. The country relies on imports from Nigeria for up to 90 per cent of its power, according to the International Renewable Energy Agency.

The sanctions could be disastrous and Niger needs to find a solution to avoid them, the country’s Prime Minister Ouhoumoudou Mahamadou told French media outlet Radio France Internationale on Sunday.

“When people say there’s an embargo, land borders are closed, air borders are closed, it’s extremely difficult for people. Niger is a country that relies heavily on the international community,” he said in French.

The 15-nation ECOWAS bloc has tried unsuccessfully to restore democracies in nations where the military took power in recent years.

In the 1990s, ECOWAS intervened in Liberia during its civil war. In 2017, it intervened in Gambia to prevent the new president’s predecessor, Yahya Jammeh, from disrupting the handover of power.

Around 7,000 troops from Ghana, Nigeria, and Senegal entered, according to the Global Observatory, which provides analysis on peace and security issues.

If the regional bloc uses force, it could trigger violence not only between Niger and ECOWAS forces but also between civilians supporting the coup and those against it, Niger analysts say.

“While this remains to be a threat and unlikely action, the consequences on civilians of such an approach if putschists chose confrontation would be catastrophic,” said Rida Lyammouri, senior fellow at the Policy Center for the New South, a Morocco-based think tank.

Lyammouri also said he does not see a “military intervention happening because of the violence that could trigger.”

U.S. Secretary of State Antony Blinken commended ECOWAS’s leadership Sunday to “defend constitutional order in Niger” after the sanctions announcement, and joined the bloc in calling for the immediate release of Bazoum and his family.

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